amfAR, The Foundation for AIDS Research

In The News Archive

HIV Funding in the South Is Critical in the Face of COVID-19, Racism
The Advocate – August 20, 2020
Bringing awareness to the epicenter of the national HIV/AIDS epidemic – the U.S. South - on the second annual Southern HIV/AIDS Awareness Day (August 20).

Residential Segregation Plays a Role in Coronavirus Disparities, Study Finds
The Washington Post – August 17, 2020
An in-depth look at amfAR’s new study showing how white counties have lower rates of COVID-19 and HIV, complete with commentary from amfAR’s VP & Director of Public Policy Greg Millett throughout.

White Counties Have Lower Rates of COVID-19, Study Finds
Philanthropy News Digest – August 13, 2020
On August 12, 2020, amfAR released an analysis showing that primarily white counties in the U.S. have the fewest cases of COVID-19 irrespective of geographic region, political inclination or before/after re-opening the economy. 

Majority White Counties Have Significantly Fewer COVID-19 Cases: Study
ABC News – August 12, 2020
A summary of amfAR’s new study showing  how disproportionately white counties in the U.S. have consistently lower rates of COVID-19 and HIV, complete with quotes from amfAR’s VP & Director of Public Policy Greg Millett. 

Q&A: The Impact of COVID-19 on HIV/AIDS
Devex – August 13, 2020
A Q&A with Dr. Jun Yong Choi, Director of the AIDS Research Institute at Yonsei University on challenges COVID-19 presents for the HIV/AIDS epidemic and how to address the stigma that both COVID-19 and HIV can cause. 

Will America Let COVID-19 Become The Next HIV?
HuffPost – August 11, 2020
amfAR’s VP & Director of Public Policy Greg Millett was interviewed on the parallels between the COVID-19 response and the initial response to HIV. 

South Africa’s Poor Scramble for Anti-HIV Drugs Amid Virus
Associated Press – August 11, 2020
Across South Africa and around the world, COVID-19 has disrupted the supply of antiretroviral drugs, endangering the lives of many of the more than 24 million people globally who take the medications that suppress HIV. 

People with HIV Face Similar Risk for COVID-19 as General Population
Healio – August 8, 2020
According to a study published in The Lancet HIV, people with HIV do not have a higher or lower risk for severe COVID-19 than the general population and should receive a similar treatment approach.

COVID-19 Affects HIV and Tuberculosis Care
Science – July 23, 2020
Key resources for the control of HIV and TB are now being redirected to control COVID-19 in various countries in Africa, particularly South Africa. However, this piece argues that the COVID-19 response also provides potential opportunities to enhance HIV and TB control.  

Chatbots, Motorbikes: Southeast Asia HIV Centers Adapt to Coronavirus
Reuters – July 21, 2020
Once the COVID-19 lockdown was imposed in Manila, LGBT community organization Love Yourself hired 20 former motorcycle taxi riders, gave them a crash course on HIV and sent them off to deliver life-saving medication to their 6,000 clients.  

H.I.V. Survivors Confront Painful Memories and New Risks in Pandemic
The New York Times – July 20, 2020
How survivors of the AIDS crisis found community in Palm Springs, but old fears are returning due to COVID-19. 

Anti-Prostitution Loyalty Oath undermines HIV fight
The Washington Blade – July 17, 2020
Data from amfAR’s study on COVID-19’s devastating effects on Black communities is sourced In an op-ed opposing the Anti-Prostitution Loyalty Oath.

The Tracking of Disparity: Here are 5 Places to Find Accurate Data on COVID-19’s Toll on People of Color and the Poor
Poynter – July 16, 2020
A succinct list of “places to find accurate data on COVID-19’s toll on people of color and the poor,” with amfAR listed as #4. The recognition comes just after the COVID Racial Data Tracker, CDC and John Hopkins.  

What Happens When a Pandemic and an Epidemic Collide
NPR’s Goats & Soda – July 15, 2020
AIDS advocates, researchers, doctors and patients express fears about how the COVID-19 pandemic could affect continuing progress in the fight against AIDS. 

Mississippi Matters: Coronavirus
WAPT Channel 16 (Jackson, MS) – July 14, 2020
Dr. Leandro Mena of University of Mississippi Medical Center credits amfAR Vice President & Director of Public Policy Greg Millett for leading the study on COVID-19’s disproportionate impact on Black Americans. 

Decades of Research on an HIV Vaccine Boost the Bid for the One Against Coronavirus
The Washington Post – July 14, 2020
Researchers share how investments in HIV research has brought confidence in the search for a COVID-19 vaccine.  

Top News from AIDS 2020 Virtual
Positively Aware - July 13, 2020
A summary of amfAR Vice President & Director of Public Policy Greg Millett’s AIDS 2020 plenary, focusing on how disparities persist in the fight against HIV and the importance of centering marginalized communities.  

New Data Confirms Black and Latino Communities Hit Hardest by Coronavirus Pandemic
The Grio – July 10, 2020
amfAR Vice President & Director of Public Policy Greg Millett discusses how minority populations are bearing the brunt of the COVID-19 crisis.  

This Week in Managed Care: July 10, 2020
American Journal of Managed Care
 – July 10, 2020
The newsletter mentions standout sessions from AIDS 2020, including amfAR Vice President & Director of Public Policy Greg Millett’s plenary on the persistent social and racial disparities that are hindering the fight to end HIV.

Trumpism, Not Polarization, Drives America’s Disastrous Coronavirus Politics
Vox – July 1, 2020
A look at how the United States’ policy and public health compliance is failing during the COVID-19 pandemic. amfAR Vice President and Director of Public Policy Greg Millett shares insight on how the U.S. stacks up against other countries.  

When New York City Needed Help Fighting COVID-19, One Nurse Left Her New Life In New Mexico to Help
Woman’s Day – July 1, 2020
amfAR’s recent study and quotes from amfAR Vice President and Director of Public Policy Greg Millett are sourced in this piece on a woman’s experience on the front lines in the battle against COVID-19.  

Creators of the John Hopkins Coronavirus Tracker Say Viewers are Missing the Bigger Picture – Economic Inequality and Disparities in Health
Business Insider – June 30, 2020
Business Insider continues to use amfAR’s recent study as a source for related stories. The publication most recently used the stat “amfAR found that US counties in which at least 13% of the population is Black account for 58% of COVID-19 deaths and 52% of cases nationwide.”  

HIV and COVID-19
POZ - June 29, 2020
amfAR’s social media post on TREAT Asia fellow Dr. Anna Maureen Dungca-Lorilla is included in a story about how AIDS organizations are responding to COVID-19.  

NBC 6 Voices: Protests and the Pandemic
NBC 6 South Florida – June 26, 2020
amfAR Vice President and Director of Public Policy Greg Millett joined this live segment via Zoom to discuss how Black Americans have been disproportionately impacted due to nationwide protests and the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic.   

The Effect of Black Lives Matter Protests on Coronavirus Cases, Explained
Vox – June 26, 2020
amfAR Vice President and Director of Public Policy Greg Millett was interviewed for this piece looking at how Black Lives Matter protests may not be to blame for increasing COVID-19 cases.  

VICE News Tonight
VICE – June 18, 2020
As dozens of COVID-19 vaccines are in development, amfAR Vice President and Director of Public Policy Greg Millett discusses how distrust could cripple effectiveness.

COVID-19 Could Cause a Shortage of HIV Meds This Summer
POZ – June 24, 2020
A UNAIDS analyst warned that widespread delays of tenofovir and six other important generic drugs are expected this summer if immediate actions aren’t taken. 

New Drug Candidate Reawakens Sleeping HIV in Hopes of Functional Cure
Medical Xpress – June 23, 2020
A new “shock and kill” strategy has been proposed by scientists at Sanford Burnham Prebys, detailed in a new press release. amfAR Vice President & Director of Research, Rowena Johnston is quoted discussing the approach. 

A Second Plague: Poet Mark Doty on the Echoes of AIDS in the COVID Era
GQ – June 23, 2020
Known as one of the most accomplished poets in America, Mark Doty reflects on the return of a familiar feeling – fear without knowledge. 

Pandemic Doctor Volunteers as 'Street Medic' During Anti-Racism Protests
U.S. News & World Report – June 19, 2020
This story used amfAR’s recent study as a source to demonstrate how Black Americans are disproportionately affected by COVID-19. 

NATIVE SON’s Black Gay Leadership Forum Uplifts the Community, Virtually
The Body – June 12, 2020
amfAR Vice President and Director or Public Policy, Greg Millett was part of a first-of-its-kind virtual black gay leadership forum, spearheaded by Emil Wilbekin, founder of NATIVE SON and former Essence Editor-at-Large. Millett spoke during the forum on disparities in health for Black gay men, explaining that social determinants of health have more to do with Black health outcomes than individual decisions, because systematic racism limits those individual choices.

Coronavirus Pandemic and George Floyd Protests Highlight Health Disparities for Black People
CNBC – June 11, 2020
In an interview with CNBC, amfAR Vice President and Director of Public Policy, Greg Millett, says that COVID-19 cases have been undercounted among African Americans due to the lack of testing sites in minority communities. 

‘Flying Blind’: Doctors Race to Understand What COVID-19 Means to People with HIV
STAT News – June 10, 2020
Physicians have spearheaded a new national research effort to better understand how COVID-19 affects people living with HIV.  

Learn How the HIV Community Can Adapt to the COVID-19 Pandemic.
POZ – June 10, 2020
AIDS United will be hosting a series of webinars geared towards addressing the continued impacts of COVID-19 on the HIV community.  

POLL: 14% of White Americans Know Someone Who Died from the Coronavirus. For Black Americans, it's 26%
Business Insider – June 10, 2020
Business Insider uses amfAR’s recent study as a source to demonstrate how Black Americans are disproportionately affected by COVID-19.  

COVID-19 Is Dr. Anthony Fauci’s ‘Worst Nightmare’
CNN – June 10, 2020 
Speaking via recorded video at the Biotechnology Innovation Organization International Convention, Dr. Fauci called coronavirus his “worst nightmare,” in some ways more than Ebola or HIV.

The American Nightmare
The Atlantic – June 1, 2020
On the topic of black victims of COVID-19, leading antiracist voice Ibram X. Kendi writes : “According to the Foundation for AIDS Research, structural factors such as employment, access to health insurance and medical care, and the air and water quality in neighborhoods are drivers of black infections and deaths, and not ‘intrinsic characteristics of black communities or individual-level factors.’” 

What do Coronavirus Disparities Look Like State by State?
NPR – May 30, 2020
NPR uses amfAR’s recent study as a source to demonstrate how communities of color are being hit disproportionately by COVID-19.

Anthony Fauci, Other Prominent Figures Honor the Legacy of Larry Kramer
The Hill – May 28, 2020 
Dr. Anthony Fauci and other notable figures share their memories of legendary AIDS activist and playwright, Larry Kramer, who passed away this week at the age of 84.  

COVID-19 Global Diaries: ‘How My All-Female, HIV-Positive Health Workers are Shielding Other Suffers’
Marie Claire – May 28, 2020
Ilda Kuleba, Country Director for mothers2motherin Mozambique leads a 300-strong team of frontline health workers - all women, all living with HIV. She shares how her powerhouse team is uniquely positioned to help women and children stay safe and healthy during the COVID-19 pandemic. 

Americans Aren’t Getting the Advice They Need
The Atlantic – May 28, 2020
As states begin to reopen, an HIV researcher notes how the general public has begun to develop its own guidance on how to cope with a pandemic, “just as the gay community did in the early days of AIDS.” 

How Activists Are Creating A “Queer Response” to COVID-19
Refinery29 – May 28, 2020
A look at how queer activists, including ACT UP have been protesting and organizing a variety of issues related to how COVID-19 is impacting their community. 

COVID-19’s ‘Catastrophic’ Impact on Latino Communities is Driven by ‘Savage Disparities,’ Leaders and Lawmakers Say
CNN – May 27, 2020
This piece looks at COVID-19’s disproportionate impact on minority groups and sources amfAR’s recent study on the topic. 

Two Black Men Died of COVID-19 Five Days Apart. This is What Was Lost.
The Washington Post – May 26, 2020
Key data from amfAR’s recent study on the disproportionate burden of COVID-19 on African Americans is sourced in this story about two black Americans who tragically died from the virus.

LGBTQ People Need Queer Spaces. The Coronavirus Has Locked Them Out.
Vox – May 26, 2020
While the focus is on COVID-19, New York City-based sexual health advocate Jeremiah Johnson, HIV project director at the Treatment Action Group, urges queer people not to lose sight of their own sexual health needs.

For Many Americans, Poor Water Access Heightens the COVID Threat
U.S. News & World Report – May 21, 2020
amfAR’s recent study on the disproportionate burden of COVID-19 on African Americans is sourced in this story about water poverty in the U.S.  

Uganda Women Fear Food Shortages Will Make Coronavirus and HIV a Deadly Mix
Reuters – May 21, 2020
Two months into a lockdown to prevent the spread of COVID-19, many Ugandans are struggling. An HIV-positive woman shared that she has been avoiding taking her antiretroviral drugs since she has nothing to eat, to avoid nausea and dizziness.  

New Orleans’ Lower Ninth Ward Battling Racial Disparities Brought on by Coronavirus
FOX News – May 20, 2020
This story looks at how black communities across the country have been hit the hardest by COVID-19, and sources amfAR’s study on the topic.  

COVID-19 Adds Anxiety, Fear for HIV-Positive Patients
WDET – May 20, 2020
While COVID-19 poses no greater risk for people living with HIV/AIDS who are properly medicated, the social anxiety and stigma is exacerbating existing issues. 

COVID-19 & PEPFAR: Implications for the Future
Kaiser Family Foundation – May 20, 2020
The potential for COVID-19 to significantly affect the health and development of low and middle income countries, particularly those in sub-Saharan Africa, has serious implications for PEPFAR.  

A Stark Look at COVID-19 and Racial Disparities
Elemental by Medium - May 14, 2020
Key data from amfAR’s recent study on the disproportionate burden of COVID-19 on African Americans is sourced in this story on the same topic.  

COVID-19 Brings Health Disparities Research to the Forefront
NIH Director’s Blog – May 14, 2020
In his latest blog post, NIH Director Dr. Francis Collins sources amfAR’s recent study while discussing the disproportionate burden of COVID-19.

The New York Times – May 14, 2020
A look at whether states will move to criminalize the weaponization of COVID-19, the way more than half of U.S. states made undisclosed HIV exposure a crime when the AIDS crisis erupted in the 1980s.
The Washington Post – May 13, 2020
As states begin to reopen, the writer expresses concern for black Americans – one of the groups disproportionately harmed by COVID-19.
The Guardian – May 13, 2020
Peter Piot has played a key role in fighting HIV, helped discover Ebola and is one of the world's foremost experts on viruses. Here, he shares his compelling story after becoming ill with COVID-19.
Bloomberg – May 11, 2020
Following the release of amfAR’s study on how COVID-10 disproportionately impacts black Americans, amfAR Vice President and Director of Public Policy Greg Millett urges policy makes to “address it proactively.”
UNAIDS – May 11, 2020
WHO and UNAIDS estimate that if efforts are not made to mitigate and overcome interruptions in health services during the COVID-19 pandemic, a six-month disruption of antiretroviral therapy could lead to more than 500 000 extra deaths from AIDS-related illnesses.
The Advocate – May 11, 2020
A short commentary comparing today’s pandemic to the early days of the AIDS crisis.

Deploying Data Against HIV and COVID-19
amfAR -- May 6th, 2020
amfAR spoke with Dr. Simone Gonçalves da Fonseca about her HIV research and her recent work on the novel coronavirus.

Study: Counties With Higher Black Populations Account for More Than Half of All Cases, Almost 60% of Deaths CNN’s Inside Politics with John King – May 6, 2020
amfAR Vice President and Director of Public Policy Greg Millett discusses results of the amfAR study on COVID-19’s disproportionate impact on black Americans with CNN’s John King.

What We Can Learn From Communicating About COVID-19
Kaiser Family Foundation - May 6, 2020
A look at HIV messaging, how it has evolved, and what observations can be applied to COVID-19.

Disproportionately Black Counties Account for Over Half of Coronavirus Cases in the U.S. and Nearly 60% of Deaths, Study Finds
The Washington Post – May 6, 2020
A write up of key findings from amfAR’s study on how COVID-19 disproportionately impacts black Americans, with commentary from amfAR Vice President and Director of Public Policy Greg Millett.

Supreme Court Again Considers Requirement for Groups Fighting HIV/AIDS
The Washington Post – May 5, 2020
The Supreme Court kicked off a second day of telephone arguments Tuesday due to the pandemic - with a case that mingles sex, the HIV/AIDS epidemic and free speech.

HIV in the Era of COVID-19: Why Experts Are Concerned About an Increase in Cases
ABC News – April 29, 2020
Public health experts voice concerns that we could be moving toward an outburst in HIV transmission due to the personnel and resources that have been diverted towards COVID-19.

South African Health Official: We Can’t Repeat HIV Failures
CNN – April 29, 2020
Dr. Yogan Pillay, Deputy Director General at the Department of Health shares painful lessons of the HIV/AIDS crisis in South Africa – and how these learnings must be applied to combat COVID-19.

Researchers Should Study How COVID-19 Affects Women
CNN – April 26, 2020
amfAR Senior Policy and Medical Advisor, Rear Admiral Susan Blumenthal penned this piece on the importance of keeping women at the forefront of the COVID-19 response. 

For Those Who Lived Through the HIV/AIDS Epidemic in Seattle, the Coronavirus Pandemic Brings Echoes of Past Trauma
The Seattle Times – April 26, 2020
Long-term survivors of HIV and AIDS in Seattle share their experiences living through another worldwide public health crisis. 

Pandemics and Politics: Lessons from the HIV/AIDS Crisis
The Hill – April 25, 2020
A 30-year veteran lobbyist shares lessons learned from the HIV epidemic that can be applied to COVID-19.  

World War III: Fighting an Invisible Enemy, the Coronavirus
Thrive Global – April 23, 2020
amfAR Senior Policy and Medical Advisor, Rear Admiral Susan Blumenthal shares her thoughts on the steps we must take to conquer COVID-19 and save lives worldwide.

Trump Coronavirus Response Feeds Distrust in Black and Latino Communities
Politico – April 21, 2020
amfAR VP and Director of Public Policy Greg Millett discusses how misconceptions around COVID-19 reminds him of the early years of the HIV epidemic, specifically in African American and Latino communities.

Fauci Guided Us Through AIDS Crisis, Too. Survivors Say it’s a Roadmap for Coronavirus.
USA Today – April 18, 2020
Long-term survivors of HIV reflect on the many parallels and differences between HIV/AIDS and COVID-19.

What South Africa Learned from AIDS
The Economist – April 16, 2020
South Africa has more people infected with HIV than any other country, which has provided them with vast knowledge of how -and how not to - tackle infectious diseases.

Physicians Launch COVID-19 and HIV Registry
POZ – April 16, 2020
Physicians announced a new database, “Coronavirus Under Research Exclusion,” which will collect information about cases of COVID-19 among people living with HIV.

Extra Fabric from AIDS Memorial Quilt Used for Coronavirus Masks
NBC News – April 14, 2020
Dozens of volunteers have been sewing leftover fabric from the iconic AIDS Memorial Quilt into face masks for critical workers on the frontlines of the COVID-19 pandemic.

HIV & COVID-19 News Archive

HIV and COVID-19: Risks, Concerns, and the Best Way to Protect Yourself
Healthline – April 14, 2020
Steps that people living with HIV should take to protect their health during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Black Americans are Being Hammered by a Double Pandemic
CNN – April 13, 2020
amfAR VP and Director of Public Policy Greg Millett discusses how the African American community has been disproportionately victimized by both HIV/AIDS and COVID-19.

Could Lessons From the Early Fight Against AIDS Inform the Coronavirus Response?
NPR – April 10, 2020
Dr. Mervyn Silverman, former Director of Health for San Francisco and former amfAR President and Dr. Paul Volberding, amfAR Institute for HIV Cure Research Director share their experiences at the frontlines of the AIDS epidemic.

AIDS Researchers at amfAR Channel Expertise to Fight COVID-19
POZ – April 8, 2020
Additional detail on the new amfAR Fund to Fight COVID-19.

The AIDS Quilt Marches Home
People – April 8, 2020
How one woman’s tribute to her friends dying from AIDS jump-started the largest piece of folk art in the world – The AIDS Memorial Quilt.

How do COVID-19 Fears Affect People Living with HIV?
POZ – April 8, 2020
amfAR VP and Director of Research Dr. Rowena Johnston’s discussion with amfAR grantee Timothy Shacker, MD on the parallels between COVID-19 and HIV.

Lessons from the HIV Epidemic for the COVID-19 Epidemic
Medscape – April 8, 2020
amfAR VP and Director of Public Policy Greg Millett weighs in on lessons learned from the HIV epidemic that can be applied to COVID-19.

What You Need to Know About Managing HIV During the COVID-19 Outbreak
Parade – April 8, 2020
amfAR VP and Director of Research Dr. Rowena Johnston is quoted shining a light on the 35 million people who are living with HIV during the current pandemic.

Texas History: Waves of Disease Have Broken Across the State
Austin American-Statesman – April 8, 2020
A localized look at the coronavirus and the “many Texas plagues,” including the AIDS epidemic.

Lessons from the HIV Epidemic for the COVID-19 Epidemic
Medscape – April 8, 2020
amfAR VP and Director of Public Policy, Greg Millett, weighs in on lessons learned from the HIV epidemic. amfAR’s Ending the HIV Epidemic Database and recent Affordable Care Act report are also included as sources.

What AIDS Taught Coronavirus Leaders: You Can’t Bank on a Fast Vaccine
The Wall Street Journal – April 8, 2020
An in-depth look at Dr. Anthony Fauci and Dr. Deborah Birx’s professional lives which are bookended by two lethal viruses – HIV/AIDS and the novel coronavirus.

South Africa Hopes Its Battle With HIV and TB Helped Prepare it for COVID-19
Science – April 7, 2020
As COVID-19 sweeps South Africa, the country is redeploying health care workers from HIV and tuberculosis. 

Fauci: Gay People Lifted Stigma with “Incredible Courage” in HIV/AIDS Epidemic
Washington Blade – April 7, 2020
During the daily White House Coronavirus Task Force briefing on April 7, 2020, Dr. Anthony Fauci shed light on current health disparities in the United States, much like HIV/AIDS did with the LGBTQ community.

Shape-Shifting Viral Proteins: Key to HIV and COVID-19 Vaccines
amfAR - April 7, 2020
amfAR's Dr. Marcella Flores speaks with Krim Fellow Dr. Maolin Lu about applying techniques she developed for HIV to coronavirus vaccine research.

How SF Battle with HIV/AIDS Shaped Today’s Coronavirus Response
San Francisco Chronicle – April 5, 2020
amfAR Institute for HIV Cure Research Director Dr. Paul Volberding shares parallels between the AIDS epidemic and COVID-19. 

They Survived the HIV Crisis. Now New York’s Aging Gay Population is Confronting Another Plague.
The Washington Post – April 3, 2020
For New York City’s roughly 800,000 LGBTQ residents, COVID-19’s woes of loneliness, panic and fear of being vulnerable to infection are evocative of the early days of the HIV/AIDS crisis.

Love One Another or Die
Boston Review - April 2, 2020
The writer recalls what LGBTQ life was like during the AIDS crisis, and discusses what lessons can be applied to the coronavirus pandemic.

Young People Hold the Key: Flattening the Curve of the Coronavirus Pandemic
Thrive Global - April 2, 2020
amfAR Senior Policy and Medical Advisor Dr. Susan Blumenthal on how the actions of young people could alter the trajectory of the pandemic.

South Africa’s Leadership in HIV Research is Galvanizing to Tackle Coronavirus and Develop Tests
Quartz - April 2, 2020
HIV researchers in South Africa detail how they are coming together around the novel coronavirus and gearing up for a COVID-19 treatment trial.

The Racial Time Bomb in the COVID-19 Crisis 
The New York Times - April 1, 2020
An eye-opening look at how COVID-19 may prove particularly devastating in the American South.

COVID-19 Changed How the World Does Science, Together
The New York Times - April 1, 2020
Scientists are coming together to research COVID-19 and drawing comparisons with the fight against AIDS.

Coronavirus: Top South African HIV Scientist Gita Ramjee Dies
BBC News - April 1, 2020
World-renowned South African HIV researcher, Gita Ramjee, has died from COVID-19 complications.

HIV Patients Left Vulnerable Amid Pandemic, Experts Say
Politico - March 31, 2020
Experts share concerns about the large population of highly vulnerable people living with undiagnosed and untreated HIV.

The AIDS Crisis Offers Essential Lessons for Fighting COVID-19
The Advocate - March 30, 2020
amfAR VP and Director of Research Dr. Rowena Johnston on lessons learned from the AIDS epidemic that can be applied to COVID-19.